The Eiffel Tower (/ ˈ aɪ f əl / EYE-fəl; French: tour Eiffel [tuʁ‿ɛfɛl] ()) is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower.. Locally nicknamed "La dame de fer" (French for "Iron Lady"), it was constructed from to as the entrance to the World's Fair and was. A threesome with two guys and a girl, where one guy is hitting it from behind, and the other guy is getting a blow job. The guys are high-fiving over the girl to make the eiffel tower shape. Joe Friday Just The Facts: Potential “Eiffel Tower Pattern” could be in play for feuerwehr-matzenbach.de investors experience the left side of the Eiffel Tower Pattern, it is possible to experience the.
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Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza under the tower on 31 March Hackett made one of his first bungee jumps from the top of the Eiffel Tower, using a special cord he had helped develop. Hackett was arrested by the police. Facing the Champ de Mars, Devaux used an electric winch between figures to go back up to the second floor.
When firemen arrived, he stopped after the sixth jump. For its "Countdown to the Year " celebration on 31 December , flashing lights and high-powered searchlights were installed on the tower.
During the last three minutes of the year, the lights were turned on starting from the base of the tower and continuing to the top to welcome with a huge fireworks show. An exhibition above a cafeteria on the first floor commemorates this event. The searchlights on top of the tower made it a beacon in Paris's night sky, and 20, flashing bulbs gave the tower a sparkly appearance for five minutes every hour on the hour. The lights sparkled blue for several nights to herald the new millennium on 31 December The sparkly lighting continued for 18 months until July The sparkling lights were turned on again on 21 June , and the display was planned to last for 10 years before they needed replacing.
The tower received its ,,th guest on 28 November When it was built, many were shocked by the tower's daring form. Eiffel was accused of trying to create something artistic with no regard to the principles of engineering.
However, Eiffel and his team — experienced bridge builders — understood the importance of wind forces, and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world, they had to be sure it could withstand them.
In an interview with the newspaper Le Temps published on 14 February , Eiffel said:. Is it not true that the very conditions which give strength also conform to the hidden rules of harmony? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be … will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.
He used graphical methods to determine the strength of the tower and empirical evidence to account for the effects of wind, rather than a mathematical formula. Close examination of the tower reveals a basically exponential shape. The top half was even assumed to have no gaps in the latticework. The most recent, devised in after letters sent by Eiffel to the French Society of Civil Engineers in were translated into English, is described as a non-linear integral equation based on counteracting the wind pressure on any point of the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that point.
When originally built, the first level contained three restaurants — one French, one Russian and one Flemish — and an "Anglo-American Bar". After the exposition closed, the Flemish restaurant was converted to a seat theatre. A promenade 2. At the top, there were laboratories for various experiments, and a small apartment reserved for Gustave Eiffel to entertain guests, which is now open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike mannequins of Eiffel and some of his notable guests.
In May , an apartment was created on the first level to accommodate four competition winners during the UEFA Euro football tournament in Paris in June. The apartment has a kitchen, two bedrooms, a lounge, and views of Paris landmarks including the Seine , the Sacre Coeur , and the Arc de Triomphe.
The arrangement of the lifts has been changed several times during the tower's history. Given the elasticity of the cables and the time taken to align the cars with the landings, each lift, in normal service, takes an average of 8 minutes and 50 seconds to do the round trip, spending an average of 1 minute and 15 seconds at each level. The average journey time between levels is 1 minute. The original hydraulic mechanism is on public display in a small museum at the base of the east and west legs.
Because the mechanism requires frequent lubrication and maintenance, public access is often restricted. The rope mechanism of the north tower can be seen as visitors exit the lift. Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower the names of 72 French scientists, engineers and mathematicians in recognition of their contributions to the building of the tower. Eiffel chose this "invocation of science" because of his concern over the artists' protest. The tower is painted in three shades: lighter at the top, getting progressively darker towards the bottom to complement the Parisian sky.
The only non-structural elements are the four decorative grill-work arches, added in Sauvestre's sketches, which served to make the tower look more substantial and to make a more impressive entrance to the exposition. The tower has been completely repainted at least 19 times since it was built. Lead paint was still being used as recently as when the practice was stopped out of concern for the environment. The pinnacle height of the Eiffel Tower has changed multiple times over the years as described in the chart below.
The tower has two restaurants: Le 58 Tour Eiffel on the first level, and Le Jules Verne , a gourmet restaurant with its own lift on the second level. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. It was run by the multi- Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse from to Additionally, there is a champagne bar at the top of the Eiffel Tower.
From until , there was a restaurant near the top of the tower. It was removed due to structural considerations; engineers had determined it was too heavy and was causing the tower to sag. It was rebuilt on the edge of New Orleans' Garden District as a restaurant and later event hall.
As one of the most iconic landmarks in the world, the Eiffel Tower has been the inspiration for the creation of many replicas and similar towers. An early example is Blackpool Tower in England. The mayor of Blackpool, Sir John Bickerstaffe, was so impressed on seeing the Eiffel Tower at the exposition that he commissioned a similar tower to be built in his town.
It opened in and is There are various scale models of the tower in the United States, including a half-scale version at the Paris Las Vegas , Nevada, one in Paris, Texas built in , and two scale models at Kings Island , located in Mason, Ohio , and Kings Dominion , Virginia , amusement parks opened in and respectively.
Two scale models can be found in China, one in Durango, Mexico that was donated by the local French community, and several across Europe. The tower has been used for making radio transmissions since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the s, sets of aerial wires ran from the cupola to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars.
These were connected to longwave transmitters in small bunkers. In , a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar, which still exists today. The object of the transmissions was to measure the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington, D. A television antenna was first installed on the tower in , increasing its height by Work carried out in added a further 5.
The tower and its image have been in the public domain since , 70 years after Eiffel's death. The Court of Cassation , France's judicial court of last resort, upheld the ruling in March The imposition of copyright has been controversial. French doctrine and jurisprudence allows pictures incorporating a copyrighted work as long as their presence is incidental or accessory to the subject being represented,  a reasoning akin to the de minimis rule.
Therefore, SETE may be unable to claim copyright on photographs of Paris which happen to include the lit tower. The Eiffel Tower was the world's tallest structure when completed in , a distinction it retained until when the Chrysler Building in New York City was topped out. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.
This article is about the landmark in Paris, France. For other uses, see Eiffel Tower disambiguation. For other tall towers, see List of tallest towers. For other uses, see Tour Eiffel disambiguation. Seen from the Champ de Mars. Play media. Main article: List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower. Main article: List of Eiffel Tower replicas. Further information: List of tallest towers in the world , Lattice tower , and Observation deck.
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Drinkers in Cambridge can pay for beers at a pub called The Haymakers. The number of bitcoins is capped at 21 million. As of March , there were almost The supply of coins grows steadily because of the way bitcoin is programmed.
The blockchain confirms transactions as having taken place to the rest of the network. Even as far back as , bitcoin was worth almost as much as gold. As traders gain confidence in alternative forms of money and payment mechanisms, bitcoin is seen as a possible investment alternative. In fact, bitcoin exhibits similar features to gold — limited global supply, maintaining value and hedging against global market volatility.
Even though Bitcoin seems a profitable investment tool, its value can be as volatile as the value of the gold, depending on the perceived risk of owning bitcoin as a commodity. Bitcoins are encrypted for security purposes, but while the coding identifies the currency itself, it does not identify its owner.
If someone hacks the miner system and gets a secret bitcoin code they will eventually become the rightful owner. What, then, is pushing the investment value of bitcoin?
These countries are experiencing economic distress and weakening currencies, making their local currencies unpredictable and volatile. Another contributing factor to the rise of bitcoin is the possibility of a trade war between US and China. This may lead to a weakening yuan, and capital outflow from China as investors will resort to more stable currencies such as euros.
In , when the Chinese currency was in free fall , people in the country turned to bitcoin alongside gold. This was mainly due to some of the speculative money flowing out of the pound and yuan making its way to bitcoin. Governments are also lending support to the cryptocurrency. The Australian government plans to reduce tax on bitcoin transactions.
The government plans to change this. Taking its cue from bitcoin, the US government is planning to launch a legalized cryptocurrency called Fedcoin , which can be exchanged for a physical dollar. Bitcoin is not considered legal tender because it is not backed by any government. Bitcoin pricing is also motivating the much-anticipated establishment of the first bitcoin exchange-traded fund ETF in the United States.
An ETF is an investment company that has no restrictions on the amount of shares it can issue. The approval of a bitcoin ETF would make the cryptocurrency more attractive to risk-averse institutional investors as it would allow an easier way to gain access to bitcoin than buying it directly. Such is the dominance of bitcoin that the Bank of England issued a white paper on the subject , investigating the possibility of central banks minting their own cryptocurrencies.
First, it can be used as an easy medium for payments for a limited but growing number of transactions , which gold cannot replicate.
And with their limited supply of 21 million, bitcoins are likely to attract higher demand compared to gold. The debate over the supremacy of gold versus bitcoin will continue.